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What is SEO?

SEO (Search Engine Optimization) is, as the name implies, the optimization of a website for the search engines. This involves making a website search engine “friendly”, using proper linking techniques to aid the spiders in determining your site’s relevance and optimizing offsite strategy for affecting natural placement.

Search engines use what are known as “spiders” which “crawl” the web collecting information about each website it visits. Making a website search engine friendly really means making it friendly for the spiders that crawl your site. This requires an in-depth understanding of how spiders work; allowing you to code your webpage in such a way that spiders don’t get confused about what your webpage is about.
Search Engine Crawler

History of SEO

In the early days of Internet development, its users were a privileged minority and the amount of available information was relatively small. Access was mainly restricted to employees of various universities and laboratories who used it to access scientific information. In those days, the problem of finding information on the Internet was not nearly as critical as it is now.
The WebCrawler project started in 1994 and was the first full-featured search engine. The Lycos and AltaVista search engines appeared in 1995 and for many years Alta Vista was the major player in this field.

In 1997 Sergey Brin and Larry Page created Google as a research project at Stanford University. Google is now the most popular search engine in the world.


Currently, there are three leading international search engines – Google, Yahoo and Bing Search. They each have their own databases and search algorithms. Many other search engines use results originating from these three major search engines and the same SEO expertise can be applied to all of them. For example, the AOL search engine (search.aol.com) uses the Google database while AltaVista, Lycos and the entire web, all use the Yahoo database.
To understand SEO you need to be aware of the architecture of search engines. They all contain the following main components:
Spider : A browser-like program that downloads web pages
Crawler : A program that automatically follows all of the links on each web page
Indexer : A program that analyzes web pages downloaded by the spider and the crawler
Database : Storage for downloaded and processed pages
Results engine : Extracts search results from the database
Web server : A server that is responsible for interaction between the user and other search engine components
Text format and SEO
Search engines pay special attention to page text that is highlighted or given special formatting. We recommend:
» Use keywords in headings. Headings are text highlighted with the «H» HTML tags. The «h1» and «h2» tags are most effective. Currently, the use of CSS allows you to redefine the appearance of text highlighted with these tags. This means that «H» tags are used less than nowadays, but are still very important in SEO work

«TITLE» tag

This is one of the most important tags for search engines. It functions as a sort of virtual business card for your pages. Often, the TITLE tag text is the first information about your website that the user sees. This is why it should not only contain keywords, but also be informative and attractive. As a rule, 50-80 characters from the TITLE tag are displayed in search results and so you should limit the size of the title to this length.


«ALT» attributes in images

Any page image has a special optional attribute known as "alternative text.” It is specified using the HTML «ALT» tag. This text will be displayed if the browser fails to download the image or if the browser image display is disabled.
Site structure
Number of pages:  The general SEO rule is - the more, the better. Increasing the number of pages on your website increases the visibility of the site to search engines. Also, if new information is being constantly added to the site, search engines consider this as development and expansion of the site. This may give additional advantages in ranking. You should periodically publish more information on your site – news, press releases, articles, useful tips, etc.
Navigation menu: As a rule, any site has a navigation menu. Use keywords in menu links, it will give additional SEO significance to the pages to which the links refer
Keywords in page names: Some SEO experts consider that using keywords in the name of a HTML page file may have a positive effect on its search result position.
Avoid subdirectories: If there are not too many pages on your site (up to a couple of dozen), it is best to place them all in the root directory of your site. Search engines consider such pages to be more important than ones in subdirectories.
One page – one keyword phrase: For maximum SEO try to optimize each page for its own keyword phrase. Sometimes you can choose two or three related phrases, but you should certainly not try to optimize a page for 5-10 phrases at once. Such phrases would probably produce no effect on page rank
SEO and the Main page: Optimize the main page of your site (domain name, index.html) for word combinations that are most important. This page is most likely to get to the top of search engine lists. My SEO observations suggest that the main page may account for up to 30-40% percent of the total search traffic for some sites.
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